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VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2024 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Discerning Gradients of Paediatric Pain; Employing the Colour Analogue Scale (CAS) for Stratifying Degrees of Pain Severity in Juvenile Patients in Emergency Department

Ashwin Deepak, Rajadurai Meenakshisundaram, Salman Saeed, Hari Baskar, P Prabakaran, J Esther Monica, Athivaram Chaitanya Reddy, Nihas Babu, Anand Raj

Keywords : Colour analogue scale, Convenience sampling, Emergency department, Exclusion criteria, Paediatric pain perception

Citation Information : Deepak A, Meenakshisundaram R, Saeed S, Baskar H, Prabakaran P, Monica JE, Reddy AC, Babu N, Raj A. Discerning Gradients of Paediatric Pain; Employing the Colour Analogue Scale (CAS) for Stratifying Degrees of Pain Severity in Juvenile Patients in Emergency Department. 2024; 2 (1):11-14.

DOI: 10.5005/njem-11015-0034

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 26-06-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Background: This study endeavours to accurately gauge the spectrum of mild, moderate, and severe acute pain in the paediatric demographic by leveraging the colour analogue scale (CAS). The primary objectives encompass the meticulous quantification of pain gradients, delineating specific centimetre thresholds for each category. Through this, the research aims to augment precision in the realm of paediatric pain management practices. Materials and methods: This prospective study, utilising convenience sampling, focused on pain complaints in children aged 5–16 in the Emergency Department. Exclusions involved altered sensorium, clinical instability, intensive care unit (ICU) admission needs, or developmental delays. Participants used a standardised 10-cm CAS to mark and categorise their pain severity as ‘none’, ‘mild’, ‘moderate’, or ‘severe’. This approach aims to comprehensively understand paediatric pain in the Emergency Department. Results: In a cohort of 150 juveniles (mean age 10.51 years), gender distribution was balanced (48% males, 52% females). Trauma-related cases constituted 47%, with 63% falling into the low socio-economic category. Pain nature analysis revealed 47% soft painful conditions, 31% abdominal pain, and 21% headaches. Preliminary assessments showed 12% reporting no pain, 23.3% mild, 42.7% moderate, and 22% severe pain. Traumatic aetiology comprised 46.7%, primarily soft-tissue injuries. Numeric representations for pain scores were 0.56 cm (no pain), 2.03 cm (mild), 4.61 cm (moderate), and 7.62 cm (severe). Statistical analysis found no significant differences in age, gender, or aetiology concerning pain scores, but socio-economic status correlated significantly with CAS scores. A highly significant correlation was observed between pain type, pain score, and CAS score (correlation coefficient 0.903). Conclusion: This study delves into defining levels of mild, moderate, and severe pain on the CAS in paediatric cases. The insights gained provide a practical guide for promptly recognising children experiencing significant pain. The outlined scores also prove valuable for identifying eligible participants in analgesic studies. It's crucial to note the distinction in the perception of pain severity between adults, as documented in existing literature, and the nuanced paediatric perspective.

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